Legal Q&A: EU-Turkey Agreement 2016

Question Answer
1. What is the EU-Turkey Agreement 2016? The EU-Turkey Agreement 2016 is a deal between the European Union and Turkey aimed at reducing the flow of migrants from Turkey to the EU. It involves the return of migrants from Greece to Turkey and financial assistance to Turkey to support migrants.
2. What are the key provisions of the agreement? The key provisions of the agreement include the return of all irregular migrants from Greece to Turkey, the resettlement of one Syrian refugee in the EU for every Syrian returned to Turkey, and the acceleration of visa liberalization for Turkish citizens.
3. Is the agreement legally binding? Yes, the agreement is legally binding on both the EU and Turkey. It is based on international and EU law, as well as bilateral agreements between the EU and Turkey.
4. What are the human rights implications of the agreement? The agreement has raised concerns about the human rights of migrants, particularly with regard to the right to seek asylum and the prohibition of collective expulsion. The EU and Turkey have committed to ensure that the agreement is implemented in line with international human rights standards.
5. How has the agreement been implemented in practice? The implementation of the agreement has faced various challenges, including legal and practical obstacles to the return of migrants from Greece to Turkey, as well as delays in the disbursement of financial assistance to Turkey.
6. What is the current status of the agreement? The agreement remains in force, but its effectiveness and future are subject to ongoing political and legal developments, including changes in the migration situation, domestic politics in Turkey, and EU-Turkey relations.
7. Can the agreement be terminated or modified? Yes, the agreement can be terminated or modified through mutual consent of the parties, as well as in accordance with the relevant provisions of international and EU law.
8. What are the implications of the agreement for EU accession negotiations with Turkey? The agreement has implications for the broader EU-Turkey relationship, including the accession negotiations. The EU has linked progress in the implementation of the agreement to the opening of new chapters in the accession process.
9. How does the agreement affect the rights of Turkish citizens in the EU? The agreement has implications for the rights of Turkish citizens in the EU, particularly with regard to visa liberalization. The acceleration of visa liberalization for Turkish citizens is one of the key benefits for Turkey under the agreement.
10. What are the potential legal challenges to the agreement? Potential legal challenges to the agreement may arise from its compatibility with international and EU law, as well as from its implementation and enforcement, including issues related to fundamental rights and the rule of law.

The Impact of the EU Turkey Agreement 2016

When the EU Turkey Agreement was signed in 2016, it was hailed as a groundbreaking solution to the refugee crisis. The agreement aimed to control the flow of migrants into Europe and provide assistance to Turkey in dealing with the millions of refugees on its soil. As we approach the fifth anniversary of this agreement, it`s time to reflect on its impact and effectiveness.


Year Number of Arrivals in Greece Number of Returned to Turkey
2015 885,386 N/A
2016 32,494 3,565
2017 15,455 1,957
2018 32,494 6,887
2019 59,726 14,887

Case Study: Greece

One of the main components of the EU Turkey Agreement was the return of irregular migrants from Greece to Turkey. According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of arrivals in Greece decreased significantly after the agreement was implemented. However, the situation in the Greek islands, where refugees are still stranded in overcrowded camps, remains a humanitarian crisis.

Personal Reflection

As someone who is passionate about human rights and immigration law, the EU Turkey Agreement is a topic that is close to my heart. While it has undoubtedly reduced the number of arrivals in Europe, it has raised questions about the treatment of refugees and the morality of outsourcing migration control to a non-EU country. As we continue to grapple with the refugee crisis, it is essential to critically assess the impact of such agreements on vulnerable populations.

Agreement between European Union and Turkey

This Agreement is entered into on this day [Date], by and between the European Union, hereinafter referred to as “EU,” and the Republic of Turkey, hereinafter referred to as “Turkey.”

Clause Description
1 This Agreement constitutes a legal and binding commitment between the EU and Turkey, in accordance with the principles outlined in the Treaty on European Union and the relevant provisions of the Turkish Constitution.
2 EU and Turkey agree to uphold obligations set forth in Agreement as per provisions of EU-Turkey Statement of 18 March 2016, including but not limited to facilitation and application of “one-for-one” resettlement scheme for Syrians.
3 The EU and Turkey agree to cooperate in addressing the migration crisis, implementing measures to prevent irregular migration flows, ensuring the protection of human rights, and providing support for individuals in need of international protection.
4 Any dispute or claim arising under or in connection with this Agreement shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice and the Turkish Constitutional Court.
5 This Agreement may only be amended or modified by mutual written consent of the EU and Turkey, and any such amendment or modification shall be in writing and signed by both parties.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the duly authorized representatives of the EU and Turkey have executed this Agreement as of the date first written above.